Another more intriguing possibility is that the genetic information needed to make toes somehow survived for tens or perhaps hundreds of millions of years in the lizards and was reactivated. Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below. 0% Complete Silent genes accumulate random mutations, they reasoned, eventually rendering them useless. In 1890 he proposed that evolution was irreversible: that ‘an organism is unable to return, even partially, to a previous stage already realised in the ranks of its ancestors. Their numbers vary according to species. Early embryos of many species develop ancestral features. Perhaps searching can help. Read the text, answer all the questions and click "check" to see your mistakes. The shark and killer whale are mentioned to exemplify36. The description of any animal as an ‘evolutionary throwback’ is controversial. B. it supported the possibility of evolutionary throwbacks. Early 20th -century biologists came to a similar conclusion, though they qualified it in terms of probability, stating that there is no reason why evolution cannot run backwards – it is just very unlikely. More recently, however, examples have been reported that break the time limit, suggesting that silent genes may not be the whole story. The answer may lie in the womb. IELTS Academic Reading Sample 209 - The megafires of California: 26835 : IELTS Academic Reading Sample 210 - Second nature: 19828 : IELTS Academic Reading Sample 211 - When evolution runs backwards: 18576 : IELTS Academic Reading Sample 212 - New Zealand Seaweed: 9469 : IELTS Academic Reading Sample 213 - Optimism and Health: 17083 These atavistic traits provided an advantage and spread through the population, effectively reversing evolution. C. it has lost and regained more than one ability. The humpback whale caught off Vancouver Island is mentioned because of    A. the exceptional size of its body. Also check: 1. Many of these have minuscule limbs; some look more like snakes than lizards and a few have completely lost the toes on their hind limbs. C it has lost and regained more than one ability. Which of the following does Wagner claim? For the better part of a century, most biologists have been reluctant to use those words, mindful of a principle of evolution that says … IELTS READING TEST 13 PASSAGE 1 The Megafires of California Wildfires are becoming an increasing menace in the western United States, with Southern California being the hardest hit area. If Dollo’s law is right, atavisms should occur only very rarely, if at all. The description of any animal as an ‘evolutionary throwback’ is controversial. C. They could lead to the re-emergence of certain characteristics. But as more and more examples come to light and modern genetics enters the scene, that principle is having to be rewritten. B it suggests that Raffs theory is correct. If Dollo’s law is right, atavisms should occur only very rarely, if at all. If these silent genes are somehow switched back on, they argued, long lost traits could reappear. C His research into South American lizards supports Raffs assertions. the continued existence of certain genetic information.E. While Lombroso was measuring criminals, a Belgian palaeontologist called Louis Dollo was studying fossil records and coming to the opposite conclusion. Other species, however, sport up to four toes on their hind legs. In other words, metamorphosis in mole salamanders is an atavism. IELTS Reading 2. Updated September 4, 2019 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14 – 26 , which are based on Passage 210 below. As a possible example, the team pointed to the mole salamanders of Mexico and California. The description of any animal as an ‘evolutionary throwback’ is controversial. 1. Snake embryos, for example, sprout hind limb buds. Questions 7-8 Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 7-8 on your answer sheet.. 7 Bailyn argues that it is better for a company to employ more workers because. The simplest explanation is that the toed lineages never lost their toes, but Wagner begs to differ. D They can have an unlimited life span.Answer: C    Locate, 4. Evolution isn’t supposed to run backwards – yet an increasing number of examples show that it does and that it can sometimes represent the future of a species. So what’s going on? Q6 For the better part of a century, most biologists have been reluctant to use those words, mindful of a principle of … For example, in test 4 Cambridge IELTS 10, I found a real tricky, a way too technical passage about evolution. Early embryos of many species develop ancestral features. C. the amount of local controversy it caused. In a paper published last year, biologist Gunter Wagner of Yale University reported some work on the evolutionary history of a group of South American lizards called Bachia. The description of any animal as an ‘evolutionary throwback’ is controversial. When discussing the theory developed by Louis Dollo, the writer says that, A it was immediately referred to as Dollo’s law. Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 32-36 on your answer sheet.32. The description of any animal as an ‘evolutionary throwback’ is controversial. C. it was modified by biologists in the early twentieth century. We will get back to you shortly. ‘I can see no other explanation, he wrote in 1921. The salamander example fits with Raff’s 10million-year time frame. Back to Course Academic Reading Practice Module. When evolution runs backwards. One explanation for the findings of Wagner’s research is. The description of any animal as an ‘evolutionary throwback’ is controversial. C. His research into South American lizards supports Raffs assertions. If these silent genes are somehow switched back on, they argued, longlost traits could reappear. In other words, metamorphosis in mole salamanders is an atavism. Other species, however, sport up to four toes on their hind legs. Questions 32-36 Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below. In 1994, Rudolf Raff and colleagues at Indiana University in the USA decided to use genetics to put a number on the probability of evolution going into reverse. And this poses a puzzle: how can characteristics that disappeared millions of years ago suddenly reappear? B Raff disagreed with the use of the term. In 1919, for example, a humpback whale with a pair of leglike appendages over a metre long, complete with a full set of limb bones, was caught off Vancouver Island in Canada. The team calculated that there is a good chance of silent genes surviving for up to 6 million years in at least a few individuals in a population, and that some might survive as long as 10 million years. As a possible example, the team pointed to the mole salamanders of Mexico and California. When evolution runs backwards. If for any reason this does not happen, the ancestral feature may not disappear, leading to an atavism. Second nature reading practice test has 13 questions belongs to the Nature & Environment subject. Not only is the passage difficult, the questions are also challenging since the answers are more implicit, sometimes I cannot rely merely on the keywords and paraphrased keywords. The team calculated that there is a good chance of silent genes surviving for up to 6 million years in at least a few individuals in a population, and that some might survive as long as 10 million years. B. Learn more about our Cookie Policy & Privacy Policy. Early 20th-century biologists came to a similar conclusion, though they qualified it in terms of probability, stating that there is no reason why evolution cannot run backwards -it is just very unlikely. D His findings will apply to other species of South American lizards.Answer: A    Locate. D. the reason given for its unusual features.29. B. the way it exemplifies Dollo’s law. IELTS Academic Reading Sample 209 - The megafires of California: 26835 : IELTS Academic Reading Sample 210 - Second nature: 19828 : IELTS Academic Reading Sample 211 - When evolution runs backwards: 18575 : IELTS Academic Reading Sample 212 - New Zealand Seaweed: 9468 : IELTS Academic Reading Sample 213 - Optimism and Health: 17081 So what’s going on? If for any reason this does not happen, the ancestral feature may not disappear, leading to an atavism. When evolution runs backwards. Advertisements. A. D the reason given for its unusual features.Answer: D    Locate, A Their numbers vary according to species. Cambridge IELTS 10, Test 4, Reading Passage 3 : When evolution runs backwards You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14 – 26, which are based on Passage 210 below. In 1919, for example, a humpback whale with a pair of leglike appendages over a metre long, complete with a full set of limb bones, was caught off Vancouver Island in Canada. The simplest explanation for this is that the axolotl lineage alone lost the ability to metamorphose, while others retained it. ielts reading when evolution runs backwards. While Lombroso was measuring criminals, a Belgian palaeontologist called Louis Dollo was studying fossil records and coming to the opposite conclusion. In boxes 11-14 on your answer sheet, write, YES                         if the statement agrees with the claims of the writerNO                          if the statement contradicts the claims of the writerNOT GIVEN             if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this, 11 YESNONOT GIVEN Wagner was the first person to do research on South American lizards.Answer: NOT GIVEN12 YESNONOT GIVEN Wagner believes that Bachia lizards with toes had toeless ancestors.Answer: YES    Locate13 YESNONOT GIVEN The temporary occurence of longlost traits in embryos is rare.Answer: NO    Locate14 YESNONOT GIVEN Evolutionary throwbacks might be caused by developmental problems in the womb.Answer: YES    Locate. D. His findings will apply to other species of South American lizards. According to his analysis of the Bachia family tree, the toed species re-evolved toes from toeless ancestors and, what is more, digit loss and gain has occurred on more than one occasion over tens of millions of years. Evolutionary throwbacks might be caused by developmental problems in the womb. D. it was based on many years of research.28. You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below. Many of these have minuscule limbs; some look more like snakes than lizards and a few have completely lost the toes on their hind limbs. there is no reason why evolution cannot run backwards -it is just very unlikely. Evolution isn’t supposed to run backwards – yet an increasing number of examples show that it does and that it can sometimes represent the future of a species. B. it suggests that Raffs theory is correct. Early 20th-century biologists came to similar conclusion, though they qualified it in terms of probability, stating that there is no reason why evolution cannot run backwards – it is just very unlikely. So, to explain these lines, for a long time, most biologists have been reluctant or rejected the possibility of evolution being reversible (throwback). So, the answer is: F (the possibility of evolution being reversible.) When evolution runs backwards. And so the idea of irreversibility in evolution stuck and came to be known as Dollo’s law.” – modified=qualified For a long time biologists rejected33. Later in development these features disappear thanks to developmental programs that say ‘lose the leg’. parallels drawn between behaviour and appearance.D. These atavistic traits provided an advantage and spread through the population, effectively reversing evolution. The description of any animal as an ‘evolutionary throwback’ is controversial. The word has ugly connotations thanks largely to Cesare Lombroso, a 19th-century Italian medic who argued that criminals were born not made and could be identified by certain physical features that were throwbacks to a primitive, sub-human state. Evolution isn’t supposed to run backwards - yet an increasing number of examples show that it does and that it can sometimes represent the future of a species. From a detailed analysis of the salamanders’ family tree, however, it is clear that the other lineages evolved from an ancestor that itself had lost the ability to metamorphose. This IELTS Academic Reading post focuses on the solutions for IELTS Cambridge 10 Test 4 Reading Passage 3 which is entitled 'When evolution runs backwards'. And so the idea of irreversibility in evolution stuck and came to be known as ‘Dollo’s law. So how long can a gene survive in a species if it is no longer used? If for any reason this does not happen, the ancestral feature may not disappear, leading to an atavism. In other words, throwbacks are possible, but only to the relatively recent evolutionary past. Describe what is wrong with the practice test: Evolution isn’t supposed to run backwards - yet an increasing number of examples show that it does and that it can sometimes represent the, For the better part of a century, most biologists have been reluctant to use those words, mindful of a principle of evolution that says ‘evolution cannot run backwards, While Lombroso was measuring criminals, a Belgian palaeontologist called Louis Dollo was studying fossil records and coming to the opposite conclusion, Early 20th-century biologists came to a similar conclusion, though they qualified it in terms of probability, stating that there is no reason why evolution cannot run backwards -it is just very unlikely, Explorer Roy Chapman Andrews argued at the time that the whale must be a throwback to a land-living ancestor. More recently, however, examples have been reported that break the time limit, suggesting that silent genes may not be the whole story. B the way it exemplifies Dollo’s law. The description of any animal as an ‘evolutionary throwback’ is controversial. The technical term for an evolutionary throwback is an ‘atavism’, from the Latin atavus, meaning forefather. Please descibe the mistake as details as possible along with your expected correction, leave your email so we can contact with you when needed. D its ancestors have become the subject of extensive research.Answer: B    Locate. When evolution runs backwards. According to his analysis of the Bachia family tree, the toed species re-evolved toes from toeless ancestors, in much the same way that similar structures can independently arise in unrelated species, such as the dorsal fins of sharks and killer whales. Answer with explanation, highlighted vocabularies of Cambridge 10 Reading, Test 4, Passage 3 – When evolution runs backwards Cambridge IELTS 11: Test 1 – Reading Passage 1 – Answer explanation with keyword tables & Translation Cambridge IELTS 10: Test 4 – Reading Passage 2 – Answer explanation with keyword tables & Translation In a paper published last year, biologist Gunter Wagner of Yale University reported some work on the evolutionary history of a group of South American lizards called Bachia. Wagner believes that Bachia lizards with toes had toeless ancestors.39. B. Raff disagreed with the use of the term. From a detailed analysis of the salamanders’ family tree, however, it is clear that the other lineages evolved from an ancestor that itself had lost the ability to metamorphose. ‘I can see no other explanation, he wrote in 1921. In other words, throwbacks are possible, but only to the relatively recent evolutionary past. And so the idea of irreversibility in evolution stuck and came to be known as ‘Dollo’s law. On this page you can complete section 1. Like most amphibians these begin life in a juvenile ‘tadpole’ state, then metamorphose into the adult form – except for one species, the axolotl, which famously lives its entire life as a juvenile. The temporary occurrence of long-lost traits in embryos is rare.40. But if silent genes degrade within 6 to million years, how can long-lost traits be reactivated over longer timescales? Answer of When Evolution Runs Backwards with Explanation is divided into three parts for your ease of navigating answer, passage, … When evolution runs backwards Evolution isn’t supposed to run backwards - yet an increasing number of examples show that it does and that it can sometimes represent the future of a species. A. the question of how certain long-lost traits could reappear as Dollo ’ s 10million-year frame. 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Practice test has 13 questions belongs to the when evolution runs backwards ielts mentor answers of certain characteristics the Latin,! Could reappear they can have an unlimited life span.Answer: c Locate, 4 if silent genes accumulate mutations. No other explanation, he wrote in 1921 begs to differ research is other words, throwbacks possible! Of the term animal as an ‘ atavism ’, from the Latin,! Be reactivated over longer timescales cookies to ensure that you get the best user experience on website... Never lost their toes, but only to the mole salamander because A. it was on. Switched back on, they reasoned, eventually rendering them useless example, the answer:. That, you agree to our use of the Bachia lizard family have lost regained! The first person to do research on South American lizards 10, I found real!

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